Thursday, 31 August 2017

A fantastic backyard landscaping idea

A good backyard landscaping idea is one which everybody could make use of. Right now there are many various backyard landscaping suggestions and many of which tend to be decent but for you to find the 1 that's befitting you and also that's just what your own yard wants could take some reading. This particular article will help you to get the perfect backyard landscaping concept for your home.

A great backyard landscaping idea is actually to use evergreens. The Ac tual use of these fabulous trees is heading for you to do o much for just about any yard. They Will will add a stately naturel towards the really feel regarding your house whilst maintaining it welcoming along with warm. Several folks such as to use deciduous trees within the yard which is usually recommended however it will become the evergreens that will provide the yard the particular composition as well as the stability which it wants to obtain a good backyard landscaping thought along with design.

You must search for any backyard landscaping thought just such as the 1 higher than which will benefit you all 12 months round. Deciduous trees is not likely to be gorgeous in most seasons, the majority of perhaps, however, not all. Evergreens about the other hand are always great and therefore they look as stunning within the winter while they do in the summer and this is why they've created regarding such a fantastic backyard landscaping idea. The Actual key to just about any great landscaping design is to discover backyard landscaping idea such as this which will keep the yard intriguing no matter what period of the entire year it is.

Another excellent backyard landscaping concept will be to utilize hardscape. This specific is the use involving such things as rocks, fences and also walls. These kinds of will make your yard appear quite interesting in the course of just about all of the seasons. you can easily possess climbing plants about it in the summer and also spring and also quite trees around it that will will appear great within the winter. Whenever seeking for any excellent backyard landscaping idea you have to search for other accessible choices besides just plants. There will be certainly a lot more for you to landscaping than simply plants and also trees.

Walls and fences can frame your premises beautifully and also with these will be this kind of fantastic backyard landscaping concept simply because they are going to just accent most of your other wonderful backyard landscaping ideas. These People will frame your current yard as a picture frame frames a new gorgeous painting. Appear at this kind of backyard landscaping concept as well within your search for that one.

Tuesday, 15 August 2017

Stay obvious regarding Accidents And Keep Clean Landscape with Tree Support Companies

You is possibly not conscious regarding this reality nevertheless tree maintenance could even more aids you to conserve numerous dollars. These kinds of undesirable trees could damage your current wall surfaces and inside addition sewage methods with passing time. In the particular event that anyone obtain to have rid associated with undesirable trees also as additional choose with regard to fort really worth tree trimming, next you may be complimentary via investing money on many other allocations.

Merely like giving security and also safety too as preventing crashes, these tree caring as well as maintenance company will surely keep tidiness, in a part of customers. Overgrown and throughout addition undesirable trees will definitely create a mess, as well because this will definitely additionally aid in interfering using the look of your stunning yard as well as excessive landscape. make specific to end up being able to contact fort really worth tree pruning firms, as well as repair each day and inside addition moment along with them.

Not merely protecting against wall surface fractures, even so proper tree treatment method also as companies will surely avoid any kind of further crashes through using area. In case you've an old tree within your landscape, you will find opportunities that an old branch could drop on you anytime.

Some undesirable sound tree trunks may hinder your current job, as well as an individual call for expert Tree service, all through such emergency Sprinkler System Installation Frisco scenarios constantly. In existing, acquiring rid associated with undesirable trees will be not actually a difficult activity, when you have agents for you to immediate a person with almost all the complete treatment. Numerous additional compared in order to eliminating unnecessary trees, you could also prepare for you to eliminate dead trees with Sprinkler Installation Frisco out coping with any type of trouble.

It's essential pertaining to you in order to definitely understand the aspects involving operating along with fort really worth tree service. Since these trunks are usually tough and also old, consequently; anyone call for appropriate devices as well as tools for acquiring rid associated with trees. they are generally educated well, as well as utilize proper equipments regarding receiving rid involving tree trunks securely.

Wednesday, 5 July 2017 Videos - Marketing (page 7)

Beginnings will always be the hardest. As a start-up hair salon business owner, repeat business means survival. Internet marketing is the act of promoting services and products over the internet. This video teaches you where you should have the plugin and the way to get up and running.

A Fully Developed Marketing Campaign. The key to getting traffic is, producing enough 'content'. articledashboard.

Video marketing production is pretty simple. In ord er to complete so KFC could equip its restaurants with nicer furniture. You may also be one of these people in the big event you are serious about creating money online.

Even if your main goal is to sell around possible, do not forget, that people love to buy not only a product but in addition whole story connected with it. com, Dailymotion, video. This may be additional information, a free download, or even a cost reduction. So, start building a good name online now.

Article Directory: http://www. The most frequent cause is the fact that your DNS settings are incorrect. This can be put into practice by using a television advert which has a follow-up YouTube advert, and also i7 group plan de compensacion the traditional direct marketing i7 group presentation techniques c an be followed up with some digital marketing techniques. As a web-based marketer using this marketing technique, you've to construct more links and promote more links. Making sales will be the number one reason to use video marketing strategies for your business.

Friday, 30 June 2017 - 404 - Page Can't Be Found

As a Celebrity Agent, there's no marketing channel friendlier than social media marketing, which allows anyone to , develop, and channel a consistent PR (public relations) campaign for any comprehensive fan base. Whether it's deciding where you can film your piece or what to speak about, it's simple to get overwhelmed and perhaps deterred from posting videos all together. Whether it's deciding where you should film your piece or what to chat about, it's an easy task to get overwhelmed and perhaps deterred from posting videos all together. If you're looking to get a product that can reduce the look of fine lines, wrinkles, discoloration, large pores, uneven skin texture, and aging skin, a plant-based cream called Nerium AD Age-Defying Treatment might be just everything you are looking for.

By: Clair Bennet. Television adverts are more expensive. Provide your audience a reason to arrived at your site.

Some businesses sites run their particular affiliate products although some use native party services to track traffic or sales that are referred from affiliates. ) and Tube mogul is free. Right now you have an opportunity to adopt good thing about this oncoming wave and a huge impact in your local market - before it turns into a trend. Even though you could possibly be video marketing to promote a product, forget the marketing aspect, people can watch as numerous ads as they like on television. You must make certain that you take advantage of i7 Group this prime opportunity.

Targeting strategiesNike lays a number of strategies to target their immediate consumers athletes along with other sportsmen. I a wmv file and make use of windows movie maker as my editing software. Visit the domain home page.

Top YouTube Marketing Tips - Increase Success Rates With Annotations and Playlist. You will be in a position to inform your children that of you will be likely to Disneyland during Yuletide season because you've enough money. You will probably be in a position to inform your children that all individuals will be planning to Disneyland during Yuletide season because you have enough money. Of course there will probably be a i7 group presentation shift inside the creative approach as well as the viral marketing strategy. So, film away and when your done transfer the digital file to your laptop.

The viral power of the business social media marketing campaign is large so that you must think about having such campaign in your overall marketing strategy. marketingtitan. I have discovered a lesson though. Before making your digital strategy always knows this really is the audience base that you would like to target upon.

Monday, 26 June 2017

Netflix remains ruthless as 'Girlboss' cut after one season

Netflix remains ruthless as 'Girlboss' cut after one season

Netflix recently cancelled The Get Down and Sense8 after just one and two seasons, respectively. Unlike Girlboss, however, both of those were incredibly expensive to produce, especially The Get Down, which reportedly cost Netflix $120 million for just one season. At the same time, the latter show reportedly drew just a fifth the audience of Orange is the New Black.

Girlboss, however, appears to have just fared poorly from the start. Netflix has generally done well with comedy, with shows like Master of None and Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt generally receiving Sprinkler System Installation critical raves. However, the premise of a "genius asshole," could only work "if it showed some semblance of self-awareness," said IndieWire, noting that it wastes Sprinkler System Flower Mound a fine performance by lead actor Britt Robertson.

Netflix is less willing to tolerate a show with rough edges than before. "Relative to what you spent, are people watching it?" Chief Content Officer Ted Sarandos asked earlier this month. For Girlboss, it appears that not nearly enough were.

Irrigation sprinkler

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

impact sprinkler head in action

Irrigation sprinklers are sprinklers providing irrigation to agriculture, crops, vegetation, or for recreation, as a cooling system, or for the control of airborne dust, landscaping and golf courses. The sprinkler system irrigates the field and thus it is widely used in sandy areas as it checks the wastage of water through seepage and evaporation. Sprinkler irrigation is a Sprinkler Installation Fort Worth method of applying irrigation water which is similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. The pump supply system, sprinklers and operating conditions must be designed to enable a uniform application of water.


1 Types

1.1 Industrial

1.2 Residential

1.3 Underground Sprinkler

1.4 Agricultural Science

2 Use

3 Health risks from aerosols

4 Gallery

5 See also

6 References

7 External links



Sprinklers that spray in a fixed pattern are generally called sprays or spray heads. Sprays are not usually designed to operate at pressures , due to misting problems that may develop.

Higher pressure sprinklers that themselves move i n a circle are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism (impact sprinklers). These can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle.

Rainguns are similar to impact sprinkler, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130lbf/in (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9inches (10 to 50mm). In addition to irrigation, guns are used for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Many irrigation sprinklers are buried in the ground along with their supporting plumbing, although above ground and moving sprinklers are also common. Most irrigation sprinklers operate through electric and hydraulic technology and are grouped together in zones that can be collectively turned on and off by actuating a solenoid-controlled valve.


An oscillating sprinkler is commonly used to water residential lawns, and is moved as needed.

Home lawn sprinklers vary widely in their size, cost, and complexity. They include impact sprinklers, oscillating sprinklers, drip sprinklers, and underground sprinkler systems. Small sprinklers are available at home and garden stores or hardware stores for small costs. These are often attached to an outdoor water faucet and are Sprinkler System Fort Worth placed only temporarily. Other sys tems may be professionally installed permanently in the ground and are attached permanently to a home's plumbing system. An ingenious domestic sprinkler made by Nomad called a 'set-and-forget tractor sprinkler' was used in Australia in the 1950s. Water pressure ensured that the sprinkler slowly moved across a lawn.[1]

Permanently installed systems may often operate on timers or other automated processes. They are occasionally installed with retractable heads for aesthetic and practical reasons (making damage during lawn mowing or other maintenance less likely). These often are programmed to operate on a schedule and irrigate a piece of land in zones.[2]

Underground Sprinkler

Underground sprinklers function through means of basic electronic and hydraulic technology. This valve and all of the sprinklers that will be activated by this valve are known as a zone. Upon activation, the solenoid, which sits on top of the valve is magnetized lifting a small stainless ste el plunger in its center. By doing this, the activated (or raised) plunger allows air to escape from the top of a rubber diaphragm located in the center of the valve. Water that has been charged and waiting on the bottom of this same diaphragm now has the higher pressure and lifts the diaphragm. This pressurized water is then allowed to escape down stream of the valve through a series of pipes, usually made of PVC (higher pressure commercial systems) or polyethylene pipe (for typically lower pressure residential systems). At the end of these pipes and flush to ground level (typically) are pre measured and spaced out sprinklers. These sprinklers can be fixed spray heads that have a set pattern and generally spray between 1.5-2m (7-15ft.), full rotating sprinklers that can spray a broken stream of water from 6-12m (20-40ft.), or small drip emitters that release a slow, steady drip of water on more delicate plants such as flowers and shrubs. use of indigenous materials also recommended .[3]

Agricultural Science

Center pivot irrigation sprinkler nozzles, used in crop irrigation

Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler

End Gun style pivot applicator sprinkler

The first use of sprinklers by farmers was some form of home and golf course type sprinklers. These ad hoc systems, while doing the job of the buried pipes and fixed sprinkler heads, interfered with cultivation and were expensive to maintain. In the 1950s a firm based in Portland, Oregon Stout-Wyss Irrigation System, developed the rolling pipe type irrigation system for farms that has become the most popular type for farmers irrigating large fields. With this system large wheels attached to the large pipes with sprinkler heads move slowly across the field.[4]


Most irrigation sprinklers are used as part of a sprinkler system, consisting of various plumbing parts, pump unit,[5] piping and control equipment. Outdoor sprinkler systems are sometimes used as a deterrent against homeles s people. This sprinkler system was programmed to drench unsuspecting sleepers at random times during the night. Local businessmen soon copied this system in an effort to drive homeless people away from public sidewalks adjacent to their businesses.[6]

Health risks from aerosols

In 2014, it was reported that use of common garden hoses in combination with spray nozzles may generate aerosols containing droplets smaller than 10 ?m, which can be inhaled by nearby people. Water stagnating in a hose between uses, especially when warmed by the sun, can host the growth and interaction of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) as biofilms on the inner surface of the hose. Clinical cases of Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever have been found to be associated with inhalation of garden hose aerosols containing Legionella bacteria. The report provides measure d microbial densities resulting from controlled hose conditions in order to quantify the human health risks. The densities of Legionella spp. identified in two types of hoses were found to be similar to those reported during legionellosis outbreaks from other causes. It is proposed that the risk could be mitigated by draining hoses after use.[7]


An underground sprinkler system about to be installed

Irrigation sprinkler watering crops.

An Irrigation sprinkler watering a garden.gif

Irrigation sprinkler

An os cillating sprinkler watering a lawn

A overhead sprinkler

Sprinkler for children

File:Irrigation sprinkler in action.webmPlay media

An irrigation sprinkler in action

Crop sprinklers near Rio Vista, California

See also

Drip irrigation


Sprinkler system timer


^ The Ride family's 'Nomad' brand tractor lawn sprinkler, National Museum of Australia

^ Sprinkler 101

^ Howser, Huell (November 8, 2010). "Rainbird - California's Gold (12002)". California's Gold. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive.

^ Irrigation Pipe On Wheels Move Across Fields, July 1950 Popular Science, bottom of page 114

^ "CHAPTER 5. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION". Retrieved 2016-08-26.

^ Davis, Mike (2006). City of Quartz: Excavating the Future in Los Angeles. London: Verso. p.233. IS BN978-1-84467-568-5.

^ Thomas, Jacqueline M.; Thomas, Torsten; Stuetz, Richard M.; Ashbolt, Nicholas J. (2014). "Your Garden Hose: A Potential Health Risk Due toLegionellaspp. Growth Facilitated by Free-Living Amoebae". Environmental Science & Technology. 48 (17): 10456-10464. ISSN0013-936X. doi:10.1021/es502652n.

External links

The dictionary definition of irrigation sprinkler at Wiktionary

Media related to Irrigation sprinkler at Wikimedia Commons




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Saturday, 24 June 2017

Construction and Food and Beverage Segments Driving the Global Bearings Market, Says Infiniti Research


bearings market is expected to witness significant growth over

the next five years according to the latest market intelligence study

from Infiniti Research. Two segments in particular, being the

construction and food and beverage segments, are driving the growth of

the global bearings market.

According to Infiniti's

manufacturing research analysts, "In 2016, the combined market

size for bearings in the construction and food and beverage segments is

growing at an average CAGR of 9.1% in terms of revenue and 6.8% in

terms of volume."

"In terms of global market size, the construction equipment industry is

larger than food processing industry. This is also evid ent in the

comparative sizes of bearings market for construction and food

processing segments," added Infiniti

Research. Bearing revenue and volume for construction is

expected to grow at a higher rate compared to the food and beverages

segment due to the faster paced growth of the global construction

equipment industry.

Looking for research from this report? Request

more information

Infiniti Research's manufacturing analysts highlight the following key

findings for the construction and food and beverage segments of the global

bearings industry for the forecast period 2017-2022:

Bearing Market in the Construction Industry

Revenue for this segment is growing at a CAGR of 9.3% through 2022.

By application, earth moving equipment contributes the highest share

in the bearin g market for the construction equipment industry, worth

USD 1.34 billion in 2016.

Excavations and mining is the second largest segment, valued at USD

853 million in 2016.

Bearing Market in the Food and Beverage Industry

Revenue for this segment is growing at a CAGR of 8.8% through 2022.

The food and beverage segment is highly regulated by the HACCP program

for reducing the risk of safety hazards in foods.

The highest share of bearings by application for food and beverage is

contributed by the beverage bottling industry with a revenue of USD

318.2 million in 2016.

Top 10 Vendors

Schaeffler Group


LYC Bearing Corp.

Nachi Fujikoshi Corp.

C&U Group


NSK Ltd.

NTN Corp.

Minebea Mitsumi Inc

Harbin bearing Group Co.


a brochure and see how Infiniti's insights can help you

About Infiniti Research

Established in 2003, Infiniti Research is a leading market intelligence

company providing smart solutions to address your business challenges.

Infiniti Research studies markets in more than 100 countries to help

analyze competitive activity, see beyond market disruptions, and develop

intelligent business strategies.

With 14 years of experience and offices across three continents,

Infiniti Research has been instrumental in providing a complete range of

competitive intelligence, strategy , and research services for over 550

companies across the globe.

Monday, 19 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about irrigation in agriculture. For other uses, see Irrigation (disambiguation).

An irrigation sprinkler watering a lawn

Irrigation canal in Osmaniye, Turkey

Irrigation is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.

Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface a nd sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.


1 History

1.1 China

1.2 Korea

1.3 North America

2 Present extent

3 Types of irrigation

3.1 Surface irrigation

3.2 Localized irrigation

3.2.1 Subsurface textile irrigation

3.2.2 Drip irrigation

3.3 Irrigation using sprinkler Sprinkler System Installation systems

3.3.1 Irrigation using Center pivot

3.3.2 Irrigation by Lateral move (side roll, wheel line, wheelmove)[32][33]

3.4 Sub-irrigation

3.5 Irrigation Automatically, non-electric using buckets and ropes

3.6 Irrigation using water condensed from humid air

3.7 In-groun d irrigation

4 Water sources

5 Efficiency

6 Technical challenges

7 See also

8 References

9 Further reading

9.1 Journals

10 External links


Animal-powered irrigation, Upper Egypt, ca. 1846

Inside a karez tunnel at Turpan, Sinkiang

irrigation in Tamil Nadu, India

Crop sprinklers near Rio Vista, California

Residential flood irrigation in Phoenix, Arizona in the United States of America.

Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support crops for rainfed agriculture.

Perennial irrigation was practiced in the Mesopotamian plain whereby crops were regularly watered throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field.[4]Ancient Egyptians practiced Basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had been surrounded by dykes. The flood water was held until the fertile sediment had settled before the surplus was returned to the watercourse.[5] There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons, the lake swelled annually from flooding of the Nile.[6]

The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennium BCE.[7] It largely depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan.[8]

In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet season flooding and water harvesting.[9][10]

Terrace irrigation is evidenced in pre-Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China.[5] In t he Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE. These canals are the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th millennium canal.[11] Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE.[12][13] Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation.

Ancient Persia (modern day Iran) as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where barley was grown in areas where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support such a crop.[14] The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia in about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and steep hills to tap groundwater.[15] The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream (or by animals where the water source was still), was first brought into use at about this time, by Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water.[16]

The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Due to their engineering superior ity in this sector, they were often called 'masters of irrigation'. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153-1186 CE).[17]


The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Sichuan region belonging to the State of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System was built in 256 BCE to irrigate an enormous area of farmland that today still supplies water.[18] By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese also used chain pumps that lifted water from lower elevation to higher elevation.[19] These were powered by manual foot pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotatin g mechanical wheels pulled by oxen.[20] The water was used for public works of providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, but mostly for irrigation of farmland canals and channels in the fields.[21]


In 15th century Korea, the world's first rain gauge, uryanggye (Korean:???), was invented in 1441. The inventor was Jang Yeong-sil, a Korean engineer of the Joseon Dynasty, under the active direction of the king, Sejong the Great. It was installed in irrigation tanks as part of a nationwide system to measure and collect rainfall for agricultural applications. With this instrument, planners and farmers could make better use of the information gathered in the survey.[22]

North America

Main article: Hohokam

The earliest agricultural irrigation canal system known in the U.S. dates to between 1200 B.C. and 800 B.C. and was discovered in Marana, Arizona (adjacent to Tucson) in 2009.[23] The irrigation canal system predates the Ho hokam culture by two thousand years and belongs to an unidentified culture. In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture known to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops, and their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by AD 1300. The Hohokam constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Between the 7th and 14th centuries, they also built and maintained extensive irrigation networks along the lower Salt and middle Gila rivers that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East, Egypt, and China. These were constructed using relatively simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, and achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. The Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, tobacco, maize, beans and squash, as well as harvested an assortment of wild plants. Late in the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, they al so used extensive dry-farming systems, primarily to grow agave for food and fiber. Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers.[24]

Present extent

Irriga tion ditch in Montour County, Pennsylvania, off Strawberry Ridge Road

In the mid-20th century, the advent of diesel and electric motors led to systems that could pump groundwater out of major aquifers faster than drainage basins could refill them. This can lead to permanent loss of aquifer capacity, decreased water quality, ground subsidence, and other problems. The future of food production in such areas as the North China Plain, the Punjab, and the Great Plains of the US is threatened by this phenomenon.[25][26]

At the global scale, 2,788,000km (689 million acres) of fertile land was equipped with irrigation infrastructure around the year 2000. About 68% of the area equipped for irrigation is located in Asia, 17% in the Americas, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania. The largest contiguous areas of high irrigation density are found:

In Northern India and Pakistan along the Ganges and Indus rivers

In the Hai He, Huang He and Yangtze basins in Chi na

Along the Nile river in Egypt and Sudan

In the Mississippi-Missouri river basin and in parts of California

Smaller irrigation areas are spread across almost all populated parts of the world.[27]

Only eight years later in 2008, the scale of irrigated land increased to an estimated total of 3,245,566km (802 million Sprinkler System Installation acres), which is nearly the size of India.[28]

Types of irrigation

Basin flood irrigation of wheat

Irrigation of land in Punjab, Pakistan

Various types of irrigation techn iques differ in how the water obtained from the source is distributed within the field. In general, the goal is to supply the entire field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little.

Surface irrigation

Main article: Surface irrigation

In surface (furrow, flood, or level basin) irrigation systems, water moves across the surface of agricultural lands, in order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation. It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land. Historically, this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land and still used in most parts of the world.

Where water levels from the irrigation source permit, the levels are controlled by dikes, usually plugged by soil. This is often seen in terraced rice fields (rice paddies), wher e the method is used to flood or control the level of water in each distinct field. In some cases, the water is pumped, or lifted by human or animal power to the level of the land. The field water efficiency of surface irrigation is typically lower than other forms of irrigation but has the potential for efficiencies in the range of 70% - 90% under appropriate management.

Localized irrigation

Impact sprinkler he ad

Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Drip irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to this category of irrigation methods.[29]

Subsurface textile irrigation

Diagram showing the structure of an example SSTI installation

Main article: Subsurface textile irrigation

Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a tec hnology designed specifically for subsurface irrigation in all soil textures from desert sands to heavy clays. A typical subsurface textile irrigation system has an impermeable base layer (usually polyethylene or polypropylene), a drip line running along that base, a layer of geotextile on top of the drip line and, finally, a narrow impermeable layer on top of the geotextile (see diagram). Unlike standard drip irrigation, the spacing of emitters in the drip pipe is not critical as the geotextile moves the water along the fabric up to 2m from the dripper.

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation layout and its parts

Drip irrigation - a dripper in action

Grapes in Petrolina, only made possible in this semi arid area by drip irrigation

Main article: Drip irrigation

Drip (or micro) irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. In this system water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation,[30] if managed properly, since evaporation and runoff are minimized. The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly.

In modern agriculture, drip irrigation is often combined with plastic mulch, further reducing evaporation, and is also the means of delivery of fertilizer. The process is known as fertigation.

Deep percolation, where water moves below the root zone, can occur if a dri p system is operated for too long or if the delivery rate is too high. Drip irrigation methods range from very high-tech and computerized to low-tech and labor-intensive. Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other types of systems, with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems, and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a mix of plant species. Although it is difficult to regulate pressure on steep slopes, pressure compensating emitters are available, so the field does not have to be level. High-tech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves.

Irrigation using sprinkler systems

Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States

A traveling sprinkler at Millets Farm Centre, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

Further information: Irrigation sprinkler

In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors an are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. Guns are similar to rotors, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130lbf/in (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9inches (10 to 50mm). Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Sprinklers can also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water source by a hose. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended. Most of these utilize a leng th of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine, the sprinkler is pulled across the field. When the sprinkler arrives back at the reel the system shuts off. This type of system is known to most people as a "waterreel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water.

Other travelers use a flat rubber hose that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform is pulled by a cable. These cable-type travelers are definitely old technology and their use is limited in today's modern irrigation projects.

Irrigation using Center pivot

A small center pivot system from beginning to end

The hub of a center-pivot irrigation system

Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler

Center pivot with drop sprinklers

Wheel line irrigation system in Idaho, 2001

Main article: Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe (usually galvanized steel or aluminium) joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers w ith sprinklers positioned along its length.[31] The system moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot point at the center of the arc. These systems are found and used in all parts of the world and allow irrigation of all types of terrain. Newer systems have drop sprinkler heads as shown in the image that follows.

Most center pivot systems now have drops hanging from a u-shaped pipe attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler head that are positioned a few feet (at most) above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses. Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops. Crops are often planted in a circle to conform to the center pivot. This type of system is known as LEPA (Low Energy Precision Application). Originally, most center pivots were water powered. These were replaced by hydraulic systems (T-L Irrigation) and electric motor driven systems (Reinke, Valley, Zimmatic). Many modern pivo ts feature GPS devices.

Irrigation by Lateral move (side roll, wheel line, wheelmove)[32][33]

A series of pipes, each with a wheel of about 1.5 m diameter permanently affixed to its midpoint, and sprinklers along its length, are coupled together. Water is supplied at one end using a large hose. After sufficient irrigation has been applied to one strip of the field, the hose is removed, the water drained from the system, and the assembly rolled either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism, so that the sprinklers are moved to a different position across the field. The hose is reconnected. The process is repeated in a pattern until the whole field has been irrigated.

This system is less expensive to install than a center pivot, but much more labor-intensive to operate - it does not travel automatically across the field: it applies water in a stationary strip, must be drained, and then rolled to a new strip. Most systems use 4 or 5-inch (130mm) diameter aluminum pipe. The pipe doubles both as water transport and as an axle for rotating all the wheels. A drive system (often found near the centre of the wheel line) rotates the clamped-together pipe sections as a single axle, rolling the whole wheel line. Manual adjustment of individual wheel positions may be necessary if the system becomes misaligned.

Wheel line systems are limited in the amount of water they can carry, and limited in the height of crops that can be irrigated. One useful feature of a lateral move system is that it consists of sections that can be easily disconnected, adapting to field shape as the line is moved. They are most often used for small, rectilinear, or oddly-shaped fields, hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.


Subirrigation has been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables. It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from bel ow the plants' root zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table.

Sub-irrigation is also used in commercial greenhouse production, usually for potted plants. Water is delivered from below, absorbed upwards, and the excess collected for recycling. Typically, a solution of water and nutrients floods a container or flows through a trough for a short period of time, 10-20 minutes, and is then pumped back into a holding tank for reuse. Sub-irrigation in greenhouses requires fairly sophisticated, expensive equipment and management. Advantages are water and nutrient conservation, and labor-saving through lowered system maintenance and automation. It is similar in principle and action to subsurface basin irrigation.

Irrigation A utomatically, non-electric using buckets and ropes

Besides the common manual watering by bucket, an automated, natural version of this also exists. Using plain polyester ropes combined with a prepared ground mixture can be used to water plants from a vessel filled with water.[34][35][36]

The ground mixture would need to be made depending on the plant itself, yet would mostly consist of black potting soil, vermiculite and perlite. This system would (with certain crops) allow to save expenses as it does not consume any electricity and only little water (unlike sprinklers, water timers, etc.). However, it may only be used with certain crops (probably mostly larger crops that do not need a humid environment; perhaps e.g. paprikas).

Irrigation using water condensed from humid air

In countries where at night, humid air sweeps the countryside.Water can be obtained from the humid air by condensation onto cold surfaces. This is for example practiced in the vineyar ds at Lanzarote using stones to condense water or with various fog collectors based on canvas or foil sheets.

In-ground irrigation

Most commercial and residential irrigation systems are "in ground" systems, which means that everything is buried in the ground. With the pipes, sprinklers, emitters (drippers), and irrigation valves being hidden, it makes for a cleaner, more presentable landscape without garden hoses or other items having to be moved around manually. This does, however, create some drawbacks in the maintenance of a completely buried system.

Most irrigation systems are divided into zones. A zone is a single irrigation valve and one or a group of drippers or sprinklers that are connected by pipes or tubes. Irrigation systems are divided into zones because there is usually not enough pressure and available flow to run sprinklers for an entire yard or sports field at once. Each zone has a solenoid valve on it that is controlled via wire by an irrigation controller. The irrigation controller is either a mechanical (now the "dinosaur" type) or electrical device that signals a zone to turn on at a specific time and keeps it on for a specified amount of time. "Smart Controller" is a recent term for a controller that is capable of adjusting the watering time by itself in response to current environmental conditions. The smart controller determines current conditions by means of historic weather data for the local area, a soil moisture sensor (water potential or water content), rain sensor, or in more sophisticated systems satellite feed weather station, or a combination of these.

When a zone comes on, the water flows through the lateral lines and ultimately ends up at the irrigation emitter (drip) or sprinkler heads. Many sprinklers have pipe thread inlets on the bottom of them which allows a fitting and the pipe to be attached to them. The sprinklers are usually installed with the top of the head flush with the ground surface. When the water is pressurized, the head will pop up out of the ground and water the desired area until the valve closes and shuts off that zone. Once there is no more water pressure in the lateral line, the sprinkler head will retract back into the ground. Emitters are generally laid on the soil surface or buried a few inches to reduce evaporation losses.

Water sources

Irrigation is underway by pump-enabled extraction directly from the Gumti, seen in the background, in Comilla, Bangladesh.

Irrigation water can come from groundwater (extracted from springs or by using wells), from surface water (withdrawn from rivers, lakes or reservoirs) or from non-conventional sources like treated wastewater, desalinated water or drainage water. A special form of irrigation using surface water is spate irrigation, also called floodwater harvesting. In case of a flood (spate), water is diverted to normally dry river beds (wadis) using a network of dams, gates and channels and spread over large areas. The moisture stored in the soil will be used thereafter to grow crops. Spate irrigation areas are in particular located in semi-arid or arid, mountainous regions. While floodwat er harvesting belongs to the accepted irrigation methods, rainwater harvesting is usually not considered as a form of irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is the collection of runoff water from roofs or unused land and the concentration of this.

Around 90% of wastewater produced globally remains untreated, causing widespread water pollution, especially in low-income countries. Increasingly, agriculture uses untreated wastewater as a source of irrigation water. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers. However, because agriculture has to compete for increasingly scarce water resources with industry and municipal users (see Water scarcity below), there is often no alternative for farmers but to use water polluted with urban waste, including sewage, directly to water their crops. Significant health hazards can result from using water loaded with pathogens in this w ay, especially if people eat raw vegetables that have been irrigated with the polluted water. The International Water Management Institute has worked in India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mexico and other countries on various projects aimed at assessing and reducing risks of wastewater irrigation. They advocate a 'multiple-barrier' approach to wastewater use, where farmers are encouraged to adopt various risk-reducing behaviours. These include ceasing irrigation a few days before harvesting to allow pathogens to die off in the sunlight, applying water carefully so it does not contaminate leaves likely to be eaten raw, cleaning vegetables with disinfectant or allowing fecal sludge used in farming to dry before being used as a human manure.[37] The World Health Organization has developed guidelines for safe water use.

There are numer ous benefits of using recycled water for irrigation, including the low cost (when compared to other sources, particularly in an urban area), consistency of supply (regardless of season, climatic conditions and associated water restrictions), and general consistency of quality. Irrigation of recycled wastewater is also considered as a means for plant fertilization and particularly nutrient supplementation. This approach carries with it a risk of soil and water pollution through excessive wastewater application. Hence, a detailed understanding of soil water conditions is essential for effective utilization of wastewater for irrigation.[38]


Young engineers restoring and developing the old Mughal irrigation system during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II

Modern irrigation methods are efficient enough to supply the entire field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little.[39] Water use efficiency in the field can be determined as follows:

Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop Water Applied to Field) x 100

Until 1960s, the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. At that time, there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today, consumed fewer calories and ate less meat, so less water was needed to produce their food. They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. Today, the competition for water resources is much more intense. This is because there are now more than seven billion people on the planet, their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising, and there is increasing competition for water from industry, urbanisation and biofuel crops. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.[40]

Successful agriculture is dependent upon farmers having sufficient access to water. However, water scarcity is already a critical constraint to farming in many parts of the world. With regards to agriculture, the World Bank targets food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that is fostering a growing deb ate.[41]Physical water scarcity is where there is not enough water to meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to function effectively. Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity. It also occurs where water seems abundant but where resources are over-committed. This can happen where there is overdevelopment of hydraulic infrastructure, usually for irrigation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater. Economic scarcity, meanwhile, is caused by a lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand for water. Symptoms of economic water scarcity include a lack of infrastructure, with people often having to fetch water from rivers for domestic and agricultural uses. Some 2.8 billion people currently live in water-scarce areas.[42]

Technical challenges

Main article: Environmental impact of irrigation

Irrigation schemes involve solving numerous engineering and economic problems while minimizing negative environmental impact.[43]

Competition for surface water rights.[44]

Overdrafting (depletion) of underground aquifers.

Ground subsidence (e.g. New Orleans, Louisiana)

Underirrigation or irrigation giving only just enough water for the plant (e.g. in drip line irrigation) gives poor soil salinity control which leads to increased soil salinity with consequent buildup of toxic salts on soil surface in areas with high evaporation. This requires either leaching to remove these salts and a method of drainage to carry the salts away. When using drip lines, the leaching is best done regularly at certain intervals (with only a slight excess of water), so that the salt is flushed back under the plant's roots.[45][46]

Overirrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management wastes water, chemicals, and may lead to water pollution.[47]

Deep drainage (from over-irrigation) may result in rising w ater tables which in some instances will lead to problems of irrigation salinity requiring watertable control by some form of subsurface land drainage.[48][49]

Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure owing to the formation of alkaline soil

Clogging of filters: It is mostly algae that clog filters, drip installations and nozzles. UV[50] and ultrasonic[51] method can be used for algae control in irrigation systems.

See also

Deficit irrigation

Environmental impact of irrigation

Farm water

Gezira Scheme

Irrigation district

Irrigation management

Irrigation statistics

Leaf Sensor

Lift irrigation schemes

List of countries by irrigated land area

Nano Ganesh

Paddy field


Surface irrigation

Tidal irrigation


^ Snyder, R. L.; Melo-Abreu, J. P. (2005). "Frost protection: fundamentals, practice, and economics" (PD F). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISSN1684-8241.

^ Williams, J. F.; S. R. Roberts; J. E. Hill; S. C. Scardaci; G. Tibbits. "Managing Water for 'Weed' Control in Rice". UC Davis, Department of Plant Sciences. Retrieved 2007-03-14.

^ "Aridpoop -05-15". Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ Hill, Donald: A History of Engineering

^ a b p19 Hill

^ "Amenemhet III". Britannica Concise. Retrieved 2007-01-10.

^ G. Mokhtar (1981-01-01). Ancient civilizations of Africa. Unesco. International Scientific Committee for the Drafting of a General History of Africa. p.309. ISBN9780435948054. Retrieved 2012-06-19 - via

^ Richard Bulliet, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch. Pages 53-56 (2008-06-18). The Earth and Its Peoples, Volume I: A Global History, to 1550. ISBN0618992383. Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ "Traditional technologies". Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ "Africa, Eme rging Civilizations In Sub-Sahara Africa. Various Authors; Edited By: R. A. Guisepi". Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ Dillehay TD, Eling HH Jr, Rossen J (2005). "Preceramic irrigation canals in the Peruvian Andes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 102 (47): 17241-4. PMC1288011 Freely accessible. PMID16284247. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508583102.

^ Rodda, J. C. and Ubertini, Lucio (2004). The Basis of Civilization - Water Science? pg 161. International Association of Hydrological Sciences (International Association of Hydrological Sciences Press 2004) .

^ "Ancient India Indus Valley Civilization". Minnesota State University "e-museum". Retrieved 2007-01-10.

^ The History of Technology- Irrigation. Encyclopdia Britannica, 1994 edition.

^ "Qanat Irrigation Systems and Homegardens (Iran)". Globally Important Agriculture Heritage Systems. UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2007-01-10.

^ Encyclopdia Britannica, 1911 and 1989 editions

^ de Silva, Sena (1998). "Reservoirs of Sri Lanka and their fisheries". UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 2007-01-10.

^ China- history. Encyclopdia Britannica,1994 edition.

^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Taipei: Caves Books Ltd. Pages 344-346.

^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 340-343.

^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 33, 110.

^ Baek Seok-gi ??? (1987). Jang Yeong-sil ???. Woongjin Wiin Jeon-gi ?????? 11. Woongjin P ublishing Co., Ltd.

^ "Earliest Canals in America - Archaeology Magazine Archive".

^ James M. Bayman, "The Hohokam of Southwest North America." Journal of World Prehistory 15.3 (2001): 257-311.

^ "A new report says we're draining our aquifers faster than ever". High Country News. 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2014-02-11.

^ "Management of aquifer recharge and discharge processes and aquifer storage equilibrium" (PDF). Groundwater storage is shown to be declining in all populated continents...

^ Siebert, S.; J. Hoogeveen, P. Dll, J-M. Faurs, S. Feick, and K. Frenken (2006-11-10). "The Digital Global Map of Irrigation Areas- Development and Validation of Map Version 4" (PDF). Tropentag 2006- Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development. Bonn, Germany. Retrieved 2007-03-14.

^ The CIA World Factbook, retrieved 2011-10-30

^ Frenken, K. (2005). Irrigation in Africa in figures- AQUASTAT Survey- 2005 (PDF). Food and Agriculture Or ganization of the United Nations. ISBN92-5-105414-2. Retrieved 2007-03-14.

^ Provenzano, Giuseppe (2007). "Using HYDRUS-2D Simulation Model to Evaluate Wetted Soil Volume in Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems". J. Irrig. Drain Eng. 133 (4): 342-350. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(2007)133:4(342).

^ Mader, Shelli (May 25, 2010). "Center pivot irrigation revolutionizes agriculture". The Fence Post Magazine. Retrieved June 6, 2012.

^ Peters, Troy. "Managing Wheel - Lines and Hand - Lines for High Profitability" (PDF). Retrieved 29 May 2015.

^ Hill, Robert. "Wheelmove Sprinkler Irrigation Operation and Management" (PDF). Retrieved 29 May 2015.

^ "Polyester ropes natural irrigation technique". Archived from the original on April 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ "Polyester rope natural irrigation technique 2". Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ "DIY instructions for making self-watering system using ropes". Instructables.c om. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ Wastewater use in agriculture: Not only an issue where water is scarce! International Water Management Institute, 2010. Water Issue Brief 4


^ "Water use efficiency -".

^ Chartres, C. and Varma, S. Out of water. From Abundance to Scarcity and How to Solve the World's Water Problems FT Press (USA), 2010

^ "Reengaging in Agricultural Water Management: Challenges and Options". The World Bank. pp.4-5. Retrieved 2011-10-30.

^ Molden, D. (Ed). Water for food, Water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Earthscan/IWMI, 2007.

^ ILRI, 1989, Effectiveness and Social/Environmental Impacts of Irrigation Projects: a Review. In: Annual Report 1988, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 18 - 34 . On line: [1]

^ Ros egrant, Mark W., and Hans P. Binswanger. "Markets in tradable water rights: potential for efficiency gains in developing country water resource allocation." World development (1994) 22#11 pp: 1613-1625.

^ EOS magazine, september 2009

^ World Water Council

^ Hukkinen, Janne, Emery Roe, and Gene I. Rochlin. "A salt on the land: A narrative analysis of the controversy over irrigation-related salinity and toxicity in California's San Joaquin Valley." Policy Sciences 23.4 (1990): 307-329. online

^ Drainage Manual: A Guide to Integrating Plant, Soil, and Water Relationships for Drainage of Irrigated Lands. Interior Dept., Bureau of Reclamation. 1993. ISBN0-16-061623-9.

^ "Free articles and software on drainage of waterlogged land and soil salinity control in irrigated land". Retrieved 2010-07-28.

^ UV treatment

^ ultrasonic algae control

Fur ther reading

Elvin, Mark. The retreat of the elephants: an environmental history of China (Yale University Press, 2004)

Hallows, Peter J., and Donald G. Thompson. History of irrigation in Australia ANCID, 1995.

Howell, Terry. "Drops of life in the history of irrigation." Irrigation journal 3 (2000): 26-33. the history of sprinker systems online

Hassan, John. A history of water in modern England and Wales (Manchester University Press, 1998)

Vaidyanathan, A. Water resource management: institutions and irrigation development in India (Oxford University Press, 1999)


Irrigation Science, ISSN1432-1319 (electronic) 0342-7188 (paper), Springer

Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ISSN0733-9437, ASCE Publications

Irrigation and Drainage, ISSN1531-0361, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

External links

Look up irrigation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irrigation.

"Irrigation techniques". USGS. Retrieved December 8, 2005.

Royal Engineers Museum: 19th century Irrigation in India

[2]< br>
International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) Tutorial and online calculators related to agricultural irrigation

Irrigation at the Water Quality Information Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture

AQUASTAT: FAO's global information system on water and agriculture

Irrigation Supplies: Principles of Water Irrigation Systems

Irrigation & Gardening: Future Of Irrigation Needs

"Lamp Wick Solves Problem of Citrus Irrigation" Popular Mechanics, November 1930

World Bank report on Agricultural water management Irrigation is discussed in chps. 1&4.

Public DomainThis articleincorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irrigation". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.




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