Monday, 19 June 2017


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about irrigation in agriculture. For other uses, see Irrigation (disambiguation).

An irrigation sprinkler watering a lawn

Irrigation canal in Osmaniye, Turkey

Irrigation is the method in which a controlled amount of water is supplied to plants at regular intervals for agriculture. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall. Additionally, irrigation also has a few other uses in crop production, which include protecting plants against frost,[1] suppressing weed growth in grain fields[2] and preventing soil consolidation.[3] In contrast, agriculture that relies only on direct rainfall is referred to as rain-fed or dry land farming.

Irrigation systems are also used for dust suppression, disposal of sewage, and in mining. Irrigation is often studied together with drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface a nd sub-surface water from a given area.

Irrigation has been a central feature of agriculture for over 5,000 years and is the product of many cultures. Historically, it was the basis for economies and societies across the globe, from Asia to the Southwestern United States.


1 History

1.1 China

1.2 Korea

1.3 North America

2 Present extent

3 Types of irrigation

3.1 Surface irrigation

3.2 Localized irrigation

3.2.1 Subsurface textile irrigation

3.2.2 Drip irrigation

3.3 Irrigation using sprinkler Sprinkler System Installation systems

3.3.1 Irrigation using Center pivot

3.3.2 Irrigation by Lateral move (side roll, wheel line, wheelmove)[32][33]

3.4 Sub-irrigation

3.5 Irrigation Automatically, non-electric using buckets and ropes

3.6 Irrigation using water condensed from humid air

3.7 In-groun d irrigation

4 Water sources

5 Efficiency

6 Technical challenges

7 See also

8 References

9 Further reading

9.1 Journals

10 External links


Animal-powered irrigation, Upper Egypt, ca. 1846

Inside a karez tunnel at Turpan, Sinkiang

irrigation in Tamil Nadu, India

Crop sprinklers near Rio Vista, California

Residential flood irrigation in Phoenix, Arizona in the United States of America.

Archaeological investigation has found evidence of irrigation where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support crops for rainfed agriculture.

Perennial irrigation was practiced in the Mesopotamian plain whereby crops were regularly watered throughout the growing season by coaxing water through a matrix of small channels formed in the field.[4]Ancient Egyptians practiced Basin irrigation using the flooding of the Nile to inundate land plots which had been surrounded by dykes. The flood water was held until the fertile sediment had settled before the surplus was returned to the watercourse.[5] There is evidence of the ancient Egyptian pharaoh Amenemhet III in the twelfth dynasty (about 1800 BCE) using the natural lake of the Faiyum Oasis as a reservoir to store surpluses of water for use during the dry seasons, the lake swelled annually from flooding of the Nile.[6]

The Ancient Nubians developed a form of irrigation by using a waterwheel-like device called a sakia. Irrigation began in Nubia some time between the third and second millennium BCE.[7] It largely depended upon the flood waters that would flow through the Nile River and other rivers in what is now the Sudan.[8]

In sub-Saharan Africa irrigation reached the Niger River region cultures and civilizations by the first or second millennium BCE and was based on wet season flooding and water harvesting.[9][10]

Terrace irrigation is evidenced in pre-Columbian America, early Syria, India, and China.[5] In t he Zana Valley of the Andes Mountains in Peru, archaeologists found remains of three irrigation canals radiocarbon dated from the 4th millennium BCE, the 3rd millennium BCE and the 9th century CE. These canals are the earliest record of irrigation in the New World. Traces of a canal possibly dating from the 5th millennium BCE were found under the 4th millennium canal.[11] Sophisticated irrigation and storage systems were developed by the Indus Valley Civilization in present-day Pakistan and North India, including the reservoirs at Girnar in 3000 BCE and an early canal irrigation system from circa 2600 BCE.[12][13] Large scale agriculture was practiced and an extensive network of canals was used for the purpose of irrigation.

Ancient Persia (modern day Iran) as far back as the 6th millennium BCE, where barley was grown in areas where the natural rainfall was insufficient to support such a crop.[14] The Qanats, developed in ancient Persia in about 800 BCE, are among the oldest known irrigation methods still in use today. They are now found in Asia, the Middle East and North Africa. The system comprises a network of vertical wells and gently sloping tunnels driven into the sides of cliffs and steep hills to tap groundwater.[15] The noria, a water wheel with clay pots around the rim powered by the flow of the stream (or by animals where the water source was still), was first brought into use at about this time, by Roman settlers in North Africa. By 150 BCE the pots were fitted with valves to allow smoother filling as they were forced into the water.[16]

The irrigation works of ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were one of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world. In addition to underground canals, the Sinhalese were the first to build completely artificial reservoirs to store water. Due to their engineering superior ity in this sector, they were often called 'masters of irrigation'. Most of these irrigation systems still exist undamaged up to now, in Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa, because of the advanced and precise engineering. The system was extensively restored and further extended during the reign of King Parakrama Bahu (1153-1186 CE).[17]


The oldest known hydraulic engineers of China were Sunshu Ao (6th century BCE) of the Spring and Autumn period and Ximen Bao (5th century BCE) of the Warring States period, both of whom worked on large irrigation projects. In the Sichuan region belonging to the State of Qin of ancient China, the Dujiangyan Irrigation System was built in 256 BCE to irrigate an enormous area of farmland that today still supplies water.[18] By the 2nd century AD, during the Han Dynasty, the Chinese also used chain pumps that lifted water from lower elevation to higher elevation.[19] These were powered by manual foot pedal, hydraulic waterwheels, or rotatin g mechanical wheels pulled by oxen.[20] The water was used for public works of providing water for urban residential quarters and palace gardens, but mostly for irrigation of farmland canals and channels in the fields.[21]


In 15th century Korea, the world's first rain gauge, uryanggye (Korean:???), was invented in 1441. The inventor was Jang Yeong-sil, a Korean engineer of the Joseon Dynasty, under the active direction of the king, Sejong the Great. It was installed in irrigation tanks as part of a nationwide system to measure and collect rainfall for agricultural applications. With this instrument, planners and farmers could make better use of the information gathered in the survey.[22]

North America

Main article: Hohokam

The earliest agricultural irrigation canal system known in the U.S. dates to between 1200 B.C. and 800 B.C. and was discovered in Marana, Arizona (adjacent to Tucson) in 2009.[23] The irrigation canal system predates the Ho hokam culture by two thousand years and belongs to an unidentified culture. In North America, the Hohokam were the only culture known to rely on irrigation canals to water their crops, and their irrigation systems supported the largest population in the Southwest by AD 1300. The Hohokam constructed an assortment of simple canals combined with weirs in their various agricultural pursuits. Between the 7th and 14th centuries, they also built and maintained extensive irrigation networks along the lower Salt and middle Gila rivers that rivaled the complexity of those used in the ancient Near East, Egypt, and China. These were constructed using relatively simple excavation tools, without the benefit of advanced engineering technologies, and achieved drops of a few feet per mile, balancing erosion and siltation. The Hohokam cultivated varieties of cotton, tobacco, maize, beans and squash, as well as harvested an assortment of wild plants. Late in the Hohokam Chronological Sequence, they al so used extensive dry-farming systems, primarily to grow agave for food and fiber. Their reliance on agricultural strategies based on canal irrigation, vital in their less than hospitable desert environment and arid climate, provided the basis for the aggregation of rural populations into stable urban centers.[24]

Present extent

Irriga tion ditch in Montour County, Pennsylvania, off Strawberry Ridge Road

In the mid-20th century, the advent of diesel and electric motors led to systems that could pump groundwater out of major aquifers faster than drainage basins could refill them. This can lead to permanent loss of aquifer capacity, decreased water quality, ground subsidence, and other problems. The future of food production in such areas as the North China Plain, the Punjab, and the Great Plains of the US is threatened by this phenomenon.[25][26]

At the global scale, 2,788,000km (689 million acres) of fertile land was equipped with irrigation infrastructure around the year 2000. About 68% of the area equipped for irrigation is located in Asia, 17% in the Americas, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania. The largest contiguous areas of high irrigation density are found:

In Northern India and Pakistan along the Ganges and Indus rivers

In the Hai He, Huang He and Yangtze basins in Chi na

Along the Nile river in Egypt and Sudan

In the Mississippi-Missouri river basin and in parts of California

Smaller irrigation areas are spread across almost all populated parts of the world.[27]

Only eight years later in 2008, the scale of irrigated land increased to an estimated total of 3,245,566km (802 million Sprinkler System Installation acres), which is nearly the size of India.[28]

Types of irrigation

Basin flood irrigation of wheat

Irrigation of land in Punjab, Pakistan

Various types of irrigation techn iques differ in how the water obtained from the source is distributed within the field. In general, the goal is to supply the entire field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little.

Surface irrigation

Main article: Surface irrigation

In surface (furrow, flood, or level basin) irrigation systems, water moves across the surface of agricultural lands, in order to wet it and infiltrate into the soil. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow, borderstrip or basin irrigation. It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land. Historically, this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land and still used in most parts of the world.

Where water levels from the irrigation source permit, the levels are controlled by dikes, usually plugged by soil. This is often seen in terraced rice fields (rice paddies), wher e the method is used to flood or control the level of water in each distinct field. In some cases, the water is pumped, or lifted by human or animal power to the level of the land. The field water efficiency of surface irrigation is typically lower than other forms of irrigation but has the potential for efficiencies in the range of 70% - 90% under appropriate management.

Localized irrigation

Impact sprinkler he ad

Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network, in a pre-determined pattern, and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it. Drip irrigation, spray or micro-sprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to this category of irrigation methods.[29]

Subsurface textile irrigation

Diagram showing the structure of an example SSTI installation

Main article: Subsurface textile irrigation

Subsurface Textile Irrigation (SSTI) is a tec hnology designed specifically for subsurface irrigation in all soil textures from desert sands to heavy clays. A typical subsurface textile irrigation system has an impermeable base layer (usually polyethylene or polypropylene), a drip line running along that base, a layer of geotextile on top of the drip line and, finally, a narrow impermeable layer on top of the geotextile (see diagram). Unlike standard drip irrigation, the spacing of emitters in the drip pipe is not critical as the geotextile moves the water along the fabric up to 2m from the dripper.

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation layout and its parts

Drip irrigation - a dripper in action

Grapes in Petrolina, only made possible in this semi arid area by drip irrigation

Main article: Drip irrigation

Drip (or micro) irrigation, also known as trickle irrigation, functions as its name suggests. In this system water falls drop by drop just at the position of roots. Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants, drop by drop. This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation,[30] if managed properly, since evaporation and runoff are minimized. The field water efficiency of drip irrigation is typically in the range of 80 to 90 percent when managed correctly.

In modern agriculture, drip irrigation is often combined with plastic mulch, further reducing evaporation, and is also the means of delivery of fertilizer. The process is known as fertigation.

Deep percolation, where water moves below the root zone, can occur if a dri p system is operated for too long or if the delivery rate is too high. Drip irrigation methods range from very high-tech and computerized to low-tech and labor-intensive. Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other types of systems, with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems, and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a mix of plant species. Although it is difficult to regulate pressure on steep slopes, pressure compensating emitters are available, so the field does not have to be level. High-tech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves.

Irrigation using sprinkler systems

Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville, New York, United States

A traveling sprinkler at Millets Farm Centre, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

Further information: Irrigation sprinkler

In sprinkler or overhead irrigation, water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. A system utilizing sprinklers, sprays, or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors an are driven by a ball drive, gear drive, or impact mechanism. Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. Guns are similar to rotors, except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130lbf/in (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s), usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0.5 to 1.9inches (10 to 50mm). Guns are used not only for irrigation, but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging.

Sprinklers can also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water source by a hose. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms, sports fields, parks, pastures, and cemeteries unattended. Most of these utilize a leng th of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine, the sprinkler is pulled across the field. When the sprinkler arrives back at the reel the system shuts off. This type of system is known to most people as a "waterreel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression, irrigation, and land application of waste water.

Other travelers use a flat rubber hose that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform is pulled by a cable. These cable-type travelers are definitely old technology and their use is limited in today's modern irrigation projects.

Irrigation using Center pivot

A small center pivot system from beginning to end

The hub of a center-pivot irrigation system

Rotator style pivot applicator sprinkler

Center pivot with drop sprinklers

Wheel line irrigation system in Idaho, 2001

Main article: Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation

Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe (usually galvanized steel or aluminium) joined together and supported by trusses, mounted on wheeled towers w ith sprinklers positioned along its length.[31] The system moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot point at the center of the arc. These systems are found and used in all parts of the world and allow irrigation of all types of terrain. Newer systems have drop sprinkler heads as shown in the image that follows.

Most center pivot systems now have drops hanging from a u-shaped pipe attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler head that are positioned a few feet (at most) above the crop, thus limiting evaporative losses. Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops. Crops are often planted in a circle to conform to the center pivot. This type of system is known as LEPA (Low Energy Precision Application). Originally, most center pivots were water powered. These were replaced by hydraulic systems (T-L Irrigation) and electric motor driven systems (Reinke, Valley, Zimmatic). Many modern pivo ts feature GPS devices.

Irrigation by Lateral move (side roll, wheel line, wheelmove)[32][33]

A series of pipes, each with a wheel of about 1.5 m diameter permanently affixed to its midpoint, and sprinklers along its length, are coupled together. Water is supplied at one end using a large hose. After sufficient irrigation has been applied to one strip of the field, the hose is removed, the water drained from the system, and the assembly rolled either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism, so that the sprinklers are moved to a different position across the field. The hose is reconnected. The process is repeated in a pattern until the whole field has been irrigated.

This system is less expensive to install than a center pivot, but much more labor-intensive to operate - it does not travel automatically across the field: it applies water in a stationary strip, must be drained, and then rolled to a new strip. Most systems use 4 or 5-inch (130mm) diameter aluminum pipe. The pipe doubles both as water transport and as an axle for rotating all the wheels. A drive system (often found near the centre of the wheel line) rotates the clamped-together pipe sections as a single axle, rolling the whole wheel line. Manual adjustment of individual wheel positions may be necessary if the system becomes misaligned.

Wheel line systems are limited in the amount of water they can carry, and limited in the height of crops that can be irrigated. One useful feature of a lateral move system is that it consists of sections that can be easily disconnected, adapting to field shape as the line is moved. They are most often used for small, rectilinear, or oddly-shaped fields, hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.


Subirrigation has been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables. It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from bel ow the plants' root zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table.

Sub-irrigation is also used in commercial greenhouse production, usually for potted plants. Water is delivered from below, absorbed upwards, and the excess collected for recycling. Typically, a solution of water and nutrients floods a container or flows through a trough for a short period of time, 10-20 minutes, and is then pumped back into a holding tank for reuse. Sub-irrigation in greenhouses requires fairly sophisticated, expensive equipment and management. Advantages are water and nutrient conservation, and labor-saving through lowered system maintenance and automation. It is similar in principle and action to subsurface basin irrigation.

Irrigation A utomatically, non-electric using buckets and ropes

Besides the common manual watering by bucket, an automated, natural version of this also exists. Using plain polyester ropes combined with a prepared ground mixture can be used to water plants from a vessel filled with water.[34][35][36]

The ground mixture would need to be made depending on the plant itself, yet would mostly consist of black potting soil, vermiculite and perlite. This system would (with certain crops) allow to save expenses as it does not consume any electricity and only little water (unlike sprinklers, water timers, etc.). However, it may only be used with certain crops (probably mostly larger crops that do not need a humid environment; perhaps e.g. paprikas).

Irrigation using water condensed from humid air

In countries where at night, humid air sweeps the countryside.Water can be obtained from the humid air by condensation onto cold surfaces. This is for example practiced in the vineyar ds at Lanzarote using stones to condense water or with various fog collectors based on canvas or foil sheets.

In-ground irrigation

Most commercial and residential irrigation systems are "in ground" systems, which means that everything is buried in the ground. With the pipes, sprinklers, emitters (drippers), and irrigation valves being hidden, it makes for a cleaner, more presentable landscape without garden hoses or other items having to be moved around manually. This does, however, create some drawbacks in the maintenance of a completely buried system.

Most irrigation systems are divided into zones. A zone is a single irrigation valve and one or a group of drippers or sprinklers that are connected by pipes or tubes. Irrigation systems are divided into zones because there is usually not enough pressure and available flow to run sprinklers for an entire yard or sports field at once. Each zone has a solenoid valve on it that is controlled via wire by an irrigation controller. The irrigation controller is either a mechanical (now the "dinosaur" type) or electrical device that signals a zone to turn on at a specific time and keeps it on for a specified amount of time. "Smart Controller" is a recent term for a controller that is capable of adjusting the watering time by itself in response to current environmental conditions. The smart controller determines current conditions by means of historic weather data for the local area, a soil moisture sensor (water potential or water content), rain sensor, or in more sophisticated systems satellite feed weather station, or a combination of these.

When a zone comes on, the water flows through the lateral lines and ultimately ends up at the irrigation emitter (drip) or sprinkler heads. Many sprinklers have pipe thread inlets on the bottom of them which allows a fitting and the pipe to be attached to them. The sprinklers are usually installed with the top of the head flush with the ground surface. When the water is pressurized, the head will pop up out of the ground and water the desired area until the valve closes and shuts off that zone. Once there is no more water pressure in the lateral line, the sprinkler head will retract back into the ground. Emitters are generally laid on the soil surface or buried a few inches to reduce evaporation losses.

Water sources

Irrigation is underway by pump-enabled extraction directly from the Gumti, seen in the background, in Comilla, Bangladesh.

Irrigation water can come from groundwater (extracted from springs or by using wells), from surface water (withdrawn from rivers, lakes or reservoirs) or from non-conventional sources like treated wastewater, desalinated water or drainage water. A special form of irrigation using surface water is spate irrigation, also called floodwater harvesting. In case of a flood (spate), water is diverted to normally dry river beds (wadis) using a network of dams, gates and channels and spread over large areas. The moisture stored in the soil will be used thereafter to grow crops. Spate irrigation areas are in particular located in semi-arid or arid, mountainous regions. While floodwat er harvesting belongs to the accepted irrigation methods, rainwater harvesting is usually not considered as a form of irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is the collection of runoff water from roofs or unused land and the concentration of this.

Around 90% of wastewater produced globally remains untreated, causing widespread water pollution, especially in low-income countries. Increasingly, agriculture uses untreated wastewater as a source of irrigation water. Cities provide lucrative markets for fresh produce, so are attractive to farmers. However, because agriculture has to compete for increasingly scarce water resources with industry and municipal users (see Water scarcity below), there is often no alternative for farmers but to use water polluted with urban waste, including sewage, directly to water their crops. Significant health hazards can result from using water loaded with pathogens in this w ay, especially if people eat raw vegetables that have been irrigated with the polluted water. The International Water Management Institute has worked in India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Ghana, Ethiopia, Mexico and other countries on various projects aimed at assessing and reducing risks of wastewater irrigation. They advocate a 'multiple-barrier' approach to wastewater use, where farmers are encouraged to adopt various risk-reducing behaviours. These include ceasing irrigation a few days before harvesting to allow pathogens to die off in the sunlight, applying water carefully so it does not contaminate leaves likely to be eaten raw, cleaning vegetables with disinfectant or allowing fecal sludge used in farming to dry before being used as a human manure.[37] The World Health Organization has developed guidelines for safe water use.

There are numer ous benefits of using recycled water for irrigation, including the low cost (when compared to other sources, particularly in an urban area), consistency of supply (regardless of season, climatic conditions and associated water restrictions), and general consistency of quality. Irrigation of recycled wastewater is also considered as a means for plant fertilization and particularly nutrient supplementation. This approach carries with it a risk of soil and water pollution through excessive wastewater application. Hence, a detailed understanding of soil water conditions is essential for effective utilization of wastewater for irrigation.[38]


Young engineers restoring and developing the old Mughal irrigation system during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II

Modern irrigation methods are efficient enough to supply the entire field uniformly with water, so that each plant has the amount of water it needs, neither too much nor too little.[39] Water use efficiency in the field can be determined as follows:

Field Water Efficiency (%) = (Water Transpired by Crop Water Applied to Field) x 100

Until 1960s, the common perception was that water was an infinite resource. At that time, there were fewer than half the current number of people on the planet. People were not as wealthy as today, consumed fewer calories and ate less meat, so less water was needed to produce their food. They required a third of the volume of water we presently take from rivers. Today, the competition for water resources is much more intense. This is because there are now more than seven billion people on the planet, their consumption of water-thirsty meat and vegetables is rising, and there is increasing competition for water from industry, urbanisation and biofuel crops. To avoid a global water crisis, farmers will have to strive to increase productivity to meet growing demands for food, while industry and cities find ways to use water more efficiently.[40]

Successful agriculture is dependent upon farmers having sufficient access to water. However, water scarcity is already a critical constraint to farming in many parts of the world. With regards to agriculture, the World Bank targets food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that is fostering a growing deb ate.[41]Physical water scarcity is where there is not enough water to meet all demands, including that needed for ecosystems to function effectively. Arid regions frequently suffer from physical water scarcity. It also occurs where water seems abundant but where resources are over-committed. This can happen where there is overdevelopment of hydraulic infrastructure, usually for irrigation. Symptoms of physical water scarcity include environmental degradation and declining groundwater. Economic scarcity, meanwhile, is caused by a lack of investment in water or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand for water. Symptoms of economic water scarcity include a lack of infrastructure, with people often having to fetch water from rivers for domestic and agricultural uses. Some 2.8 billion people currently live in water-scarce areas.[42]

Technical challenges

Main article: Environmental impact of irrigation

Irrigation schemes involve solving numerous engineering and economic problems while minimizing negative environmental impact.[43]

Competition for surface water rights.[44]

Overdrafting (depletion) of underground aquifers.

Ground subsidence (e.g. New Orleans, Louisiana)

Underirrigation or irrigation giving only just enough water for the plant (e.g. in drip line irrigation) gives poor soil salinity control which leads to increased soil salinity with consequent buildup of toxic salts on soil surface in areas with high evaporation. This requires either leaching to remove these salts and a method of drainage to carry the salts away. When using drip lines, the leaching is best done regularly at certain intervals (with only a slight excess of water), so that the salt is flushed back under the plant's roots.[45][46]

Overirrigation because of poor distribution uniformity or management wastes water, chemicals, and may lead to water pollution.[47]

Deep drainage (from over-irrigation) may result in rising w ater tables which in some instances will lead to problems of irrigation salinity requiring watertable control by some form of subsurface land drainage.[48][49]

Irrigation with saline or high-sodium water may damage soil structure owing to the formation of alkaline soil

Clogging of filters: It is mostly algae that clog filters, drip installations and nozzles. UV[50] and ultrasonic[51] method can be used for algae control in irrigation systems.

See also

Deficit irrigation

Environmental impact of irrigation

Farm water

Gezira Scheme

Irrigation district

Irrigation management

Irrigation statistics

Leaf Sensor

Lift irrigation schemes

List of countries by irrigated land area

Nano Ganesh

Paddy field


Surface irrigation

Tidal irrigation


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^ Peters, Troy. "Managing Wheel - Lines and Hand - Lines for High Profitability" (PDF). Retrieved 29 May 2015.

^ Hill, Robert. "Wheelmove Sprinkler Irrigation Operation and Management" (PDF). Retrieved 29 May 2015.

^ "Polyester ropes natural irrigation technique". Archived from the original on April 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ "Polyester rope natural irrigation technique 2". Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ "DIY instructions for making self-watering system using ropes". Instructables.c om. 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2012-06-19.

^ Wastewater use in agriculture: Not only an issue where water is scarce! International Water Management Institute, 2010. Water Issue Brief 4


^ "Water use efficiency -".

^ Chartres, C. and Varma, S. Out of water. From Abundance to Scarcity and How to Solve the World's Water Problems FT Press (USA), 2010

^ "Reengaging in Agricultural Water Management: Challenges and Options". The World Bank. pp.4-5. Retrieved 2011-10-30.

^ Molden, D. (Ed). Water for food, Water for life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. Earthscan/IWMI, 2007.

^ ILRI, 1989, Effectiveness and Social/Environmental Impacts of Irrigation Projects: a Review. In: Annual Report 1988, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement (ILRI), Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 18 - 34 . On line: [1]

^ Ros egrant, Mark W., and Hans P. Binswanger. "Markets in tradable water rights: potential for efficiency gains in developing country water resource allocation." World development (1994) 22#11 pp: 1613-1625.

^ EOS magazine, september 2009

^ World Water Council

^ Hukkinen, Janne, Emery Roe, and Gene I. Rochlin. "A salt on the land: A narrative analysis of the controversy over irrigation-related salinity and toxicity in California's San Joaquin Valley." Policy Sciences 23.4 (1990): 307-329. online

^ Drainage Manual: A Guide to Integrating Plant, Soil, and Water Relationships for Drainage of Irrigated Lands. Interior Dept., Bureau of Reclamation. 1993. ISBN0-16-061623-9.

^ "Free articles and software on drainage of waterlogged land and soil salinity control in irrigated land". Retrieved 2010-07-28.

^ UV treatment

^ ultrasonic algae control

Fur ther reading

Elvin, Mark. The retreat of the elephants: an environmental history of China (Yale University Press, 2004)

Hallows, Peter J., and Donald G. Thompson. History of irrigation in Australia ANCID, 1995.

Howell, Terry. "Drops of life in the history of irrigation." Irrigation journal 3 (2000): 26-33. the history of sprinker systems online

Hassan, John. A history of water in modern England and Wales (Manchester University Press, 1998)

Vaidyanathan, A. Water resource management: institutions and irrigation development in India (Oxford University Press, 1999)


Irrigation Science, ISSN1432-1319 (electronic) 0342-7188 (paper), Springer

Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, ISSN0733-9437, ASCE Publications

Irrigation and Drainage, ISSN1531-0361, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

External links

Look up irrigation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Irrigation.

"Irrigation techniques". USGS. Retrieved December 8, 2005.

Royal Engineers Museum: 19th century Irrigation in India

[2]< br>
International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage (ICID) Tutorial and online calculators related to agricultural irrigation

Irrigation at the Water Quality Information Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture

AQUASTAT: FAO's global information system on water and agriculture

Irrigation Supplies: Principles of Water Irrigation Systems

Irrigation & Gardening: Future Of Irrigation Needs

"Lamp Wick Solves Problem of Citrus Irrigation" Popular Mechanics, November 1930

World Bank report on Agricultural water management Irrigation is discussed in chps. 1&4.

Public DomainThis articleincorporates text from a publication now in the public domain:Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irrigation". Encyclopdia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.




Water resources management and irrigation by country


Burkina Faso




South Africa













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North America



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United States



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South America



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Brazil - irrigation





List of countries by irrigated land area




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Problem soils

Acid sulphate soils
< br>Alkali soils

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outlin e

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A??kl? Hyk

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throwing stick

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< br>Cumberland




Manis Site


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Game drive system

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Earliest toolmaking




Clovis culture


Fire hardening

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Hand axe


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Lithic core

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Prepared-core technique

Solutrean industry

Striking platform

Tool stone


Yubetsu technique

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Bone tool

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fulacht fiadh

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LCCN: sh00006268

GND: 4006306-9

NDL: 00568646

Retrieved from ""

Friday, 16 June 2017

Getting 'Ghosted' on Lawn Care Can Be Costly Video

Transcript for Getting 'Ghosted' on Lawn Care Can Be Costly

America" on the lookout. This morning, we're focusing on ghosting. Where customers claim that workers pretend to do work they never did. ABC's linsey Davis has the story on how people say they're being ripped off. Reporter: Across the country, homeowners distraught that the grass isn't always greener when lawn care service allegedly goes wrong, turning their green glory into a bound disgrace, some taking their complaints to youtube. This was a mistake. Reporter: But it's not just complaints about work being done, sometimes it's about no work being Sprinkler System done at all and still Biddle for their service. What some called "Ghosting." This area looks completely dead to me. Reporter: This Florida resident's surveillance cameras were rolling when a trugreen pest control worker showed up. Maintain my lawn and they violated my trust. Reporter: Watch. The worker returns to his truck and before leaving drops the flag on the grass before providing any work. He's not allow. Watch this 2010 instant caught on tape. A Lauren care service worker leaving a flag on Sprinkler Installation the lawn all for nothing. In 2014, the better business bureau received more than 5,000 complaints for a variety of reasons. Average customer spent $700 annually. Including upkeep visits like his cameras recorded. They fired the employee and refund ed the customer. They issued a statement -- he did some green after all, back in his pocket. For those who are seeing red because they don't have grass that looks like this, grass that green the better business bureau say it's tough to prove ghosting, if you can, they recommend installing a camera. Lara. Linsey Davis, thank you so much. Coming up on "Good morning America" -- sunny days ahead for

This transcript has been automatically generated and may not be 100% accurate.

Thursday, 15 June 2017

Hay Bale Gardening by Timothy Samuel

Hay bale gardening technique is a low-cost and convenient way of growing flowers and vegetables. Growing vegetables in a hay bale garden is similar to the technique used to grow vegetables in a raised bed garden. If you are just getting your bales, give the bales a thorough soaking, and let them begin to break down before you plant your vegetables. Hay or straw bale gardening is another great way have your garden if you have limited space, terrible soil, a bad back Sprinkler System Installation Arlington or those who are confined to a wheel chair! So much time is saved by not having to weed or hoe or even water as often as well. This project was first researched by a Dr at the University of Minnesota Extension says, "Hay bales provide a well-aerated, disease free growing medium that is perfect for growing vegetables.

The popular method of hay bale gardening is getting more popular in town, a friend told him how to get prosperous crops using nothing but wheat straw, potting soil, a little fertilizer and some tomato plants "Every fall I get some bales and let them sit out all winter to get good and soggy, I plant a few every year and I've had real good luck. Another friend who was in the landscaping business showed him how to use wheat straw to garden "He had all kinds of crops including cucumber, squash and green beans, you can raise almost anything except corn, because it's too tall and the bale will fall over .

Bales first should be situated in a full sun formation, with twine and wire ties kept in tact. Since bales may be used two seasons, synthetic twine can be used to provide the most durable binding. For optimum root penetration and plant growth throughout gardening months, bales should be placed with strings wrapped horizontally and straws set vertically. The next step is hydration , the key to successful hay bale gardening. A form of hydroponics, the hay bale is like a sponge, and you can't let them dry out, or your crop just does not work. While watering the bales twice per day, fertilize them every other day for six days with one-half cup each of a high nitrogen fertilizer. Working with the bales is much easier than working on a traditional garden. You're putting your garden at eye level, you can see your progress, you can weed it a lot easier and harvest easier. (Posted by Denise in Creative Organic Gardening). Straw bale gardening is an interesting option for those who have either limited soil, limited space or have difficulty bending over. This is important if you intend to get two years possible out of each bale in your straw bale gardening efforts. Remember several things about placing your bales in your straw bale gardening layout. Straw bale gardening layouts can be placed end-to-end to create long gardens or grouped into traditional bed shapes or ev en set up as maze types of gardens. How crazy does it sound, growing tomatoes in bales of hay. I planted peppers, tomatoes, flowers and beans in the hay bales in different arrangements that were pleasing to the eye. Somehow I find it oddly interesting kind of like growing tomatoes upside down. In my garden adventures with hay bale and straw bale gardening I have tried several different gardening techniques. While I like growing melons and gourds in the bales both are heavy feeder Sprinkler System Installation Arlington so I created a hay bale/ straw bale square garden technique to use with these crops. Lay the bales out to form a square with an open section on the inside. Now it's time to prepare the bales for planting. Straw bale gardening has many positive aspects. Valerie Everett I prefer straw bales as they landscaping-design/landscaping-ideas-with-stone contain less seed and last longer but straw is more expensive so my choice for the garden depends on the best buy I can get or which crop I am growing. For squash plants and gourds I use hay bales. First get bales that still have the string tightly around the bale. And if you know where you want your garden position the bales. For more information and tips on gardening go to es/article_1484.shtml

Tuesday, 13 June 2017

Famous Lawyer Quotes Funny, Inspirational and Thank You Quotes for Lawyers

This hub contains the best lawyer quotes - funny,

inspirational, and famous quotes about lawyers and their career in the justice

world. I also included thank you quotes for lawyers. Enjoy and you can object

by the way, by commenting at the end of the article. You can also share your

quotes. Cheers!

Quotes and sayings

for lawyers. Lawyers...lawyers...what would we do without them. I have compiled

the best quotes I found about lawyers in this hub as I made related quote-hubs

already before this - like the quotes for teachers and some movie quotes. This

time, it's gonna be a tribute for our dear lawyers. I remember someone

mentioned making a scrapbook of such quotes. How thoughtful and sweet would

that be, heh. Well, in case you would want these quotes as a gift of thanks for

your attorney, it's gonna be cute and sweet.

Inspirational and Motivational Quotes for Lawyers

"A lawyer with a brie fcase can steal more than a thousand

men with guns." - Mario Puzo

"You win some and you lose some, but you get paid for all of

them." - Anonymous

"I don't think you can make a lawyer honest by an act of

legislature. You've got to work on his conscience. And his lack of conscience

is what makes him a lawyer." - Will Rogers

"The good lawyer is not the man who has an eye to every side

and angle of contingency, and qualifies all his qualifications, but who throws

himself on your part so heartily, that he can get you out of a scrape." - Ralph

Waldo Emerson

"You cannot live without the lawyers, and certainly you

cannot die without them." - Joseph H. Choate

"A judge is a law student who marks his own examination

papers." - H. L. Mencken

"To me, a lawyer is basically the person that knows the rules of the

country. We're all throwing the dice, playing the game, moving our pieces

around the board, but if there is a problem the lawyer is the only person who

has read the inside of Best Attorney the top of the box." - Jerry Seinfeld

"The Lawyer's Motto:

"Insofar as manifestations of functional deficiencies are agreed by any

and all concerned parties to be imperceivable, and are so stipulated, it is

incumbent upon said heretofore mentioned parties to exercise the deferment of

otherwise pertinent maintenance procedures."

In Other Words:

"If it ain't broke, don't fix it." --Anonymous

Funny Lawyer Quotes

A compilation of funny quotes about lawyers:

"I busted a mirror and got seven years bad luck, but my

lawyer thinks he can get me five." - Stephen Wright

"In America, an acquittal doesn't mean you're innocent, it

means you beat the rap. My clients lose even when they win." - F. Lee Bailey

"The fir st thing we do, let's kill all the lawyers." - William

Shakespeare King

Henry VI Part 2.

"Lawyers are just like physicians: what one says, the other contradicts." - Sholom


"A lawyer is a person who writes a 10,000-word document and calls it a

"brief." - Franz Kafka

"The minute you read something that you can't

understand, you can almost be sure that it was drawn up by a lawyer." - Will


"A Lawyer will do anything to win a case, sometimes he will

even tell the truth." -Patrick Murray

"Law students are trained in the case method, and to the

lawyer everything in life looks like a case." - Edward Packard, Jr.

"I don't like lawyers, nannie." "No one likes

lawyers, little boy." - J. P. Donleavy

"Lawyers are the only persons in whom ignorance of the law

is not punished." - Jeremy Bentham

"I n the Halls of Justice the only justice is in the halls." - Lenny Bruce

"I feel like I wanna cut class today." "Why, is it Law?" - Fehl Dungo

Thank you Quotes for Lawyers

"Thank you attorney for being an exceptional lawyer.

This wouldn't be fixed without your excellent skills." - Anonymous

"You're a friend, a really strong shoulder to cry on and a

doctor of my sick company. Thank you, attorney." - Anonymous

Famous Lawyers Quotes

Some quotes about lawyers from famous people:

"If there were no bad pe ople there would be no good lawyers."

Charles Dickens

"When you have no basis for an argument, abuse the

plaintiff." - Cicero

"He who is his own lawyer has a fool for a client." Proverb

"In England, justice is open to all - like the Ritz Hotel." -

Sir James Mathew

"You are remembered for the rules you break."- Douglas MacArthur

"Don't misinform your Doctor nor your Lawyer." Benjamin


"The lawyer's truth is not Truth, but consistency or a

consistent expediency." - Henry David Thoreau

"A lawyer without books would be like a workman without

tools." - Thomas Jefferson

"The power of the lawyer is in the uncertainty of the law."

- Jeremy Bentham

"A lawyer without history or literature is a mechanic, a

mere working mason; if he possesses some knowle dge of these, he may venture to

call himself an architect." - Sir Walter Scott

"Only lawyers and painters can turn white to black." - Japanese


Now for the bonus

part...a little entertainment...WATCH it and LOL

California Residents Face Fines as Bone-Dry State Seeks to Reduce Water Use

Across the West, a historic drought - the worst in over a century - has sparked a water crisis that for the first time has forced California officials to impose mandatory statewide water restrictions.

"We need water," Gov. Gerry Brown said today. "We're gonna have to get water."

Watch: Extremely dry conditions fuel wildfires in at least five states.

There have no been no fewer than a dozen raging wildfires, from Idaho and Or egon to Arizona, Washington and Nevada.

The Bully Fire in Northern California chewed through 10-square miles and destroyed eight homes. The landscape has become a tinderbox and water reservoirs are now bone dry. About 2,200 firefighters have been working hard to keep the flames away.

Nevada's Lake Mead is now at its lowest point since the Hoover Dam was built, officials said.

In today's announcement, officials in California announced that it is illegal to let sprinkler systems flow into the street, hose down sidewalks and driveways or use an open hose to wash your car.

"I think my husband has been guilty of coming out late at night and doing a little secretive watering underneath the trees," resident Pam Ferko said.

Scofflaws faced fines of up to $500 a day.
Previously, residents had ignored the governor's pleas to cutback - statewide, water usage actually went up - so now Californians are being encouraged to rat out their neighbors.

"Our water complaint calls have gone up exponentially from the last two years," said Terrance Davis of the state's Department of Utilities.

Lawn sprinklers and car washes aren't the only culprits though.

Agriculture uses 80 percent of the state's water. The drought is projected to cost $2 billion in crop losses this year, which will mean higher food prices nationwide.

How much electricity does a computer use

The power supply is one of the crucial elements that make up the wonder we call the personal computer. With its status as a crucial element, why then do we often overlook the PSU?

One valid answer is that the PSU is often included when purchasing a PC chassis. Another possibility is that we do not know how much power the individual components require. In this article I intend to clarify the latter.

The motherboard (20 to 60 watt)

In today's market we are spoiledfor choice when purchasing motherboards. The entry-leveldesktop motherboard consumes as little as 20 watts, add a couple of extra USB ports and the consumption could climb to 35 watts. When purchasing a gaming motherboard with multiple PCIe slots the need tops at 60 watt.

The processor (60 to 140 watt)

With the introduction of the new multi core processors from Intel and AMD, power consumption peaks at 140 watt. In the table below I have listed some popular processor choices with the power requirements of each.



Core2Duo 8 series

65 watts

Athlon II X2

65 watts

Core2 Duo 9 series

95 watts

Athlon II X3

45 watts

Core2 Quad

95 watts

Athlon II X4

95 watts

Core i3

75 watts

Phenom II X2

80 watts

Core i5

95 watts

Phenom II X3

95 watts

Core i7

130 watt

Phenom II X6

140 watts

RAM (3 to 6 wattper Dimm)

PC's use three different types of RAM; they are DDR, DDR2and DDR3. DRRstill requires the most with 6 watts followed by DDR2with 4 watts Electrician Service and lastly DDR3requiring a mere 3 watts per Dimm.

Graphics Card (50 to 300 watt)

The graphics card is Best Electrician Service often considered the most power-hungrypart and to deduce its consumption level we will have to take a closer look at the power connectors present on the device.

Below is a guideline about what you can expect:

PCIe with no separate connectors 75 watts

PCIewith one 6Pin connector 150 watts

PCIewith 2x 6Pinconnectors/ PCIewith a 8Pin connector 225 watts

PCIewith a 8Pinand 6Pin connector 300 watts

Miscellaneous components (Find breakdown below)

Just add these components below up to tally your watt usage:

Case Fan 5 watts

Optical Drive 10 watts

Hard Drive 10 to 15 watts

Lighting (Refer to ballast)

When purchasing a new PSU make sure to leave some tolerance for expansion.

That concludes your PC's power consumption breakdown.

Monday, 12 June 2017

House votes to begin repealing Obamacare| Reuters

WASHINGTON U.S. House Republicans on Friday won passage of a measure starting the process of dismantling Obamacare, despite concerns about not having a ready replacement and the potential financial cost of repealing Democratic President Barack Obama's landmark health insurance law.

The House of Representatives voted 227-198 to instruct committees to draft legislation by a target date of Jan. 27 that would repeal the 2010 Affordable Health Care Act, popularly known as Obamacare. The Senate approved the same measure early Thursday.

No Democrats suppor ted the initiative. Nine Republicans voted against the measure.

With this vote, Republicans began delivering on their promise to end Obamacare, which also was a campaign promise of Republican President-elect Donald Trump.

The program, which expanded health coverage to some 20 million people, has been plagued by increases in insurance premiums and deductibles and by some large insurers leaving the system.

The resolution passed by the House and Senate does not need presidential approval, since it is part of an internal congressional budget process. But once the Obamacare repeal legislation is drafted, both chambers will need to approve it, and a presidential signature will be required.

By that time, Trump will have been sworn in as president. He has urged Congress to act quickly to repeal and replace the Democratic program.

Obamacare was enacted nearly seven years ago - over Republican objections - in an effort to expand coverage and give new protect ions for people with pre-existing health conditions and other barriers that left them without insurance.

In the past few years, the House has voted more than 60 times to repeal or alter Obamacare, but Republicans had no hope a repeal would become law as long as Obama was president and could veto their bills.

House Speaker Paul Ryan, a Republican, said Obamacare was collapsing and action was urgent. For people who have health insurance through the Obamacare system, he said, "The deductibles are so high it doesn't feel like you've got insurance in the first place.

"We have to step in before things get worse. This is nothing short of a rescue mission," Ryan said.

Democratic leader Nancy Pelosi rebutted Republicans' claims that the law was a failure.

"The rate of growth in heal thcare costs in our country has been greatly diminished by the Affordable Care Act," she said. "In the more than 50 years that they have been measuring the rate of growth, it has never been slower than now."

The choice before lawmakers, she said, is "affordable care versus chaos."

Harvard University economist David Cutler warned that there could be trouble in U.S. insurance markets if lawmakers do repeal the law but a replacement is slow in coming.

"You could create a lot of havoc," he said, adding that some insurers "may get out of the market entirely."

Trump applauded Congress's efforts with a Friday morning tweet saying, "The 'Unaffordable' Care Act will soon be history!"

The president-elect, who takes office on Jan. 20, pressed lawmakers this week to repeal and replace it "essentially simultaneously."

Republican leaders would like to finish the rep eal process within weeks, but some lawmakers think it could take far longer.

Some Republicans have expressed concern about starting a repeal before agreeing on how to replace provisions of the complicated and far-reaching law.

The nonpartisan Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget estimated repealing Obama's signature health insurance law entirely would cost roughly $350 billion over 10 years.

Republicans say a good replacement would give states more control of a healthcare program and provide more stability on health insurance premiums.

(Additional reporting by Lisa Lambert, Susan Heavey and Julie Steenhuysen; Editing by Bill Trott and Jonathan Oatis)

Friday, 9 June 2017

"Sanctuary city" ban signed into law by Texas governor

AUSTIN, Texas --Texas pushed to the forefront of national debate over immigration Sunday night when Republican Gov. Greg Abbott signed a so-called "sanctuary cities" ban that lets police ask during routine stops whether someone is in the U.S. legally and threatens sheriffs with jail if they don't cooperate with federal immigration agents.

The new Texas law was blasted by opponents as the nation's toughest on immigrants since Arizona's crackdown in 2010, disparagingly known as the "papers, please" provision. They are now vowing a court challenge in Texas similar to what unfolded in Arizona.

The bill goes into effect Sept. 1, 2017, reports CBS Austin affiliate KEYE-TV.

Every major police chief in Texas, which includes some of the largest cities in the U.S., opposed the measure that allows police to inquire about the immigration status of anyone they detain, a situation that can range from arrest for a crime to being stopped for a traffic violation.

It al so requires police chiefs and sheriffs -- under the threat of jail and removal of office -- to comply with federal requests to hold criminal suspects for possible deportation. Republicans have a strong majority in the Legislature and shoved aside Democratic objections, even as President Donald Trump's efforts to withhold federal funding for sanctuary cities have hit roadblocks in federal courts.

"Let's face it, the reason why so many people come to America is because we are a nation of laws and Texas is doing its part to keep it that way," Abbott said.

The timing of the signing caught Democratic lawmakers flatfooted. Abbott signed the bill on a Facebook livestream with no advanced public warning. Protests over the Texas bill have been intense for months and about 20 people were charged with criminal trespassing last week after staging a daylong sit-in at a state building where some of Abbott's staff works.

Democratic state Rep. Cesar Blanco said it looked lik e Abbott "wanted to get ahead" of any protests surrounding the bill signing. Abbott spokesman John Wittman said they chose to sign the bill on a Facebook livestream because that's "where most people are getting their news nowadays."

The bill cleared a final hurdle this week in the Republican-controlled Legislature over objections from Democrats and immigrant rights supporters who've packed the Texas Capitol. They call it a "show-me-your-papers" measure that will be used to discriminate against Latinos.

Texas is nation's second most populous state, and opponents say Hispanics will now be subjected to racial profiling and predicted the law will have a chilling effect on immigrant families.

A Syracuse University project showed that between 2014 and 2016 Texas police complied with federal requests and detained more than 35,000 undocumented people. That's 20,000 more than the state of California detained.


Texas police complied with federal requests and detained more than 35,000 undocumented people between 2014-2016, according to the Transactional Records Access Clearinghouse at Syracuse University.

CBS News

Terri Burke, executive director of the ACLU of Texas, said "we will fight this assault in the courts" and the ballot box. Abbott said key provisions of the bill had already been tested at the U.S. Supreme Court, which struck down several components of Arizona's law but allowed the provision permitting police to ask about immigration status.

According to the press release from Gov. Abbott's office, the legislation states that entities and officials that do not comply with the law could face the following penalties:

A civil penalty for entities in violation of the law of up to $25,500 for each day of the violation.A class A misdemeanor for a sheriff, chief of police, or constable who fails to comply with federal immigration detainer requestsRemoval from office for any elected or appointed official who does not comply with the law.

The term "sanctuary cities" has no legal definition, but Republicans want local police to help federal immigration agents crack down on criminal suspects in the U.S. illegally. Some Democrats said the timing of the signing particularly stung after three recent federal court rulings that found intentional discrimination in Republican-passed voting laws.

"They did not connect the history of our culture or how closely that it is tied to Mexico," Democratic state. Rep. Eddie Rodriguez said. "It's just extremely personal. There is a lot of disconnect. They don't really see this as affecting people."

Reaction to the signing spread swiftly in Texas and beyond. Thomas Saenz, president of the Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund, said millions in the nation's second most populous state will now be subjected to racial profiling and suggested that worried Hispanic residents will now be less willing t o cooperate with police investigations.

"Given the size of the state, this may well be the most costly gubernatorial signature in all of United States history," Saenz said.

The Texas bill allows police to inquire about the immigration status of anyone they detain, a situation that can range from arrest for a crime to being stopped for a traffic violation. It also requires local officials to comply with federal requests to hold criminal suspects for possible deportation.

Opponents blast the Texas bill as a version of Arizona's immigration crackdown law, SB 1070, which launched protests, lawsuits and national controversy in 2010. The Arizona law went to the U.S. Supreme court, which voided much of the measure but allowed the provision permitting police to ask about immigration status.

But the Texas and Arizona bills are not identical. Whereas the Arizona law required police to try to determin e the immigration status of people during routine stops, the Texas bill doesn't instruct officers to ask. But it does allow Texas police to inquire whether a person is in the country legally, even if they're not under arrest.

Texas doesn't currently have any cities which have formally declared themselves sanctuaries for immigrants.

But Sally Hernandez, the sheriff of Travis County, which includes liberal Austin, enraged conservatives by refusing to honor federal detainer requests if the suspects weren't arrested for immigration offenses or serious crimes such as murder. Hernandez softened her policy after Abbott cut funding to the county, saying decisions would be made on a case-by-case basis. She has said she will conform to the state's ban if it becomes law.

In 2016, a Justice Departmentinspector general's reportinvestigated how much in Justice Department federal grants some sanctuary jurisdictions receive (as of Mar. 2016). Over 60 percent of the funding g oes to 10 jurisdictions identified by the report:

Connecticut: $69,305,444

California $132,409,635

Orleans Parish, Louisiana: $4,737,964

New York, New York: $60,091,942

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: $16,505,312

Cook County, Illinois: $6,018,544

Chicago, Illinois: $28,523,222

Miami-Dade County, Florida: $10,778,815

Milwaukee, Wisconsin: $7,539,572

Clark County, Nevada: $6,257,951